Federalist 68

Federalist 68 outlined
Hamilton’s understanding of the Electoral College[edit]
Federalist No. 68 is the continuation of Hamilton’s analysis of the presidency, in this case concerned with the mode of selecting the United States President. Here, Hamilton argues for our modern conception of the Electoral College, though in the case of an Electoral tie, the power would be given to the House of Representatives to vote on the election of the president.
In justifying the use of the Electoral College, Hamilton focuses on a few arguments dealing with the use of the Electoral College instead of direct election. First, in explaining the role of the general populace in the election of the president, Hamilton argues that the, “sense of the people”, through the election of the electors to the Electoral College, should be a part of the process. The final say, however, lies with the electors, who Hamilton notes are,
Men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station and acting under circumstances favorable to deliberation, and to a judicious combination of all the reasons and inducements which were proper to govern their choice.
Therefore, the direct election of the president is left up to those who have been selected by the voters to become the electors. This indirect election is justified by Hamilton because while a republic is still served, the system allows for only a certain type of person to be elected president, preventing individuals who are unfit for a variety of reasons to be in the position of chief executive of the country.
This is reflected in his later fears about the types of people who could potentially become president. He worries that corrupted individuals could, particularly those who are either more directly associated with a foreign state, or individuals who do not have the capacity to run the country. The former is covered by Article II, Section 1, v of the United States Constitution, while the latter is covered by Hamilton in Federalist 68, where he notes that the person who will become president will have to be a person who possesses the faculties necessary to be a president, stating that,
Talents for low intrigue, and the little arts of popularity, may alone suffice to elevate a man to the first honors in a single State; but it will require other talents, and a different kind of merit, to establish him in the esteem and confidence of the whole Union, or of so considerable a portion of it as would be necessary to make him a successful candidate for the distinguished office of President of the United States
Hamilton, while discussing the safeguards, is not concerned with the possibility of an unfit individual becoming president, instead he says,
It will not be too strong to say, that there will be a constant probability of seeing the station filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and virtue.
This is copied from Wikapedia.


If someone you do not know enters your house, do you have the right to shoot and kill them?  Seems like a simple question.  How many of you said “Yes, of course.  I have a right to protect myself from a perceived threat to my family”?

A woman goes to a clinic for an abortion.  Should she have the right to have one safely? How many of you said “No. Abortion is a sin and is wrong no matter what the circumstances. It should be illegal”.

Did you say yes to the first instance but no to the second?  Let’s look at this a little closer…..

What if, in the first situation, the intruder was a black man (assume you are white) that meant to go your neighbor’s house two doors down.  Both houses look very similar and your garage door was open (just like your neighbor’s). He walks in the basement (as directed by your neighbor) and goes upstairs because he doesn’t see anyone. You hear noises in the basement and go and get your gun. You know, the loaded one that you keep for protection. You have it for just this reason. You open the basement door and he is there. A black man, a stranger, has entered your house. He startles you and you shoot and kill him.  Are you justified in shooting him?  He is innocent and unarmed.  It was an accident. Should you be prosecuted and punished?  You PERCEIVE that you were protecting your life and your children’s lives. But he was an innocent life, just at the wrong place. You took a completely innocent life.  Wasn’t it justified because you were protecting yourself and your family?

The second situation is not as simple as it appears either.  The woman seeking an abortion has carefully and thoughtfully considered her family. She loves her husband and two small children.  She would gladly welcome this third but she suffers from depression and bipolar.  She has finally gotten her medications right.  She knows that she will have to stop some of them and cannot fathom how she can survive another year or more of such deep darkness and emotional upheaval (called depression & bipolar).  After the last child, she was in and out of the hospital. She even attempted suicide once. Finally she feels better and is functioning.  She knows that it will always be there but finally it is not consuming her life and her family’s life. She cannot risk the threat another pregnancy will have on her family.  She is protecting herself and her family from an ACTUAL threat.  The fetus is an innocent life but threatens her children, her husband and herself.  Shouldn’t she be able to safely protect her family without punishment?

Or the woman seeking an abortion may be the 21 year old nursing student.  Her parents died a couple months before in a car accident. Her dad was from Australia and his family quit talking to him when he left home 30 years before. She really doesn’t know much about his family. Her mom’s parents are dead and she has an aunt in Ohio.  Her mom and aunt had a disagreement when her grandpa died about 10 years ago. She had seen her once since then. Her aunt came to the funeral and told her if she needed anything to call.  Well, she needed help. Her parents left her a little money but not enough to pay for school.  She has a scholarship and works 30 hours a week. She lives with three other nursing students.  They talked her into going out on her 21st birthday and she drank. She isn’t a big drinker. She met a guy with a warm smile and kind words. She hadn’t had the time or much experience with dating. He said nice things and she was so lonely. She wanted to feel wanted, to be held and to be loved. He never called her again. But she is pregnant. She prayed about it and got the nerve to call her aunt. It had been a week and no call back. Time is ticking. On one hand, she would have something to love. She would have a family. How could she do it by herself? How could she support a baby? Who would care for it while she worked? She would have to leave school, her scholarship, her on-campus housing…her dreams of being a nurse vanished or at least on hold indefinitely. She makes the decision to terminate the pregnancy. She is sad but hopes God will bless her in the future. She just cannot do it by herself. Flash forward 20 years…She is a neo-natal ICU nurse. She helps save babies every day. She is married to a loving man and they have twin teenage boys. She runs the “Meal-a-month” program at church. She thinks back about what her life may have been but does not regret her decision. It took her on a path of helping babies and others. She loves her family and her life.

Or maybe she is the married mother of three who cannot start all over again. She is married to a man that comes home from work for a prepared dinner at six o’clock. After he eats he sits in the living room, watches TV and starts drinking. He yells at the kids if they are too loud so she ushers them back to their bedrooms so as to not anger him. He has a really bad temper and hasn’t harmed them but she is afraid that may change. He has hit her twice now. The oldest is ten and he sees what is going on. Her son is very protective of his mother and she fears the day he talks back to his father will not be a good day. She also has two daughters ages 4 and 6.  She is waiting for the youngest to start school so she can leave with the kids. The woman is a teacher. She knows that she cannot afford full-time childcare so she must just wait until the youngest starts school. Every night as her husband rolls off of her and has finished his business she counts how many more days…433. Can she hold on that long? She is doing everything in her power to keep her children safe and happy. Oh no! She is pregnant. How could that happen? She is on birth control. How can she start over? The thought of 433 days was manageable but 2,298 is unfathomable. She cannot. She must protect her family. She decides on an abortion.

How can we, as a society, decide what is justifiable and what is not? I can give you thousands more stories about difficult choices made by women to terminate a pregnancy. How can you be pro-birth but not pro-life?  How can you possibly know the difficult situation many women find themselves in related to pregnancy. “Well my religion believes that all life is sacred and it is my right to protect all of the innocent unborn lives.” What about those little innocent lives (the children of the women getting an abortion)? Who is protecting them? Their mother, she is protecting her most precious gifts from God and that is the most she can do. Do not judge what you do not know.  If you do not believe in abortion then do not have one. How can you possibly think you have the right to choose for every woman and every circumstance that can occur with a pregnancy? Let God judge us for he knows the truth. For He is the true righteous one.


The Lincoln Memorial has been the site for many of the United States’ most historic rallies, from the civil rights and anti-Vietnam protests of the 1960s to the Million Man March in 1995. However, for the thousands of women planning to march on Washington following Donald Trump’s inauguration, the D.C, landmark won’t be available for rallying.

According to The Guardian, the National Park Service, on behalf of the Presidential Inauguration Committee, has blocked access to the landmark by filing a “massive omnibus blocking permit.” This will bar protesters from most of the National Mall, Pennsylvania Avenue, the Washington Monument, and of course, the Lincoln Memorial for days and weeks before, during, and after the inauguration, which will take place on Jan. 20, 2017.




PS  It appears they are working something out.  Come join us on the march in St. Louis.




I’m concerned….

I am concerned about our future…every part of it.  I hear “Give it a chance, he might surprise you”.  I do not think it is a time to lay back and watch things happen hoping for a positive outcome.  I am not so naive to think he won’t do some good things though I cannot imagine what they might be. So I guess I’ll have to wait and see.

I do not intend on being an idle watcher. We need to protect our personal rights, the environment, the economy…It’s time to band together for quality healthcare for all citizens.  We cannot accept the registration of our citizens by religious affiliation especially if just one is singled out.  How has that worked in the past?  Sadness and embarrassment.  No, use your voice and be heard at every level of government.  A united voice is how we get it done.  And there is a lot to do….

The United “says” of America

Saving jobs…..

“Companies are not going to leave the United States without consequences,” said Trump last Thursday.  He successfully saved jobs at the Carrier plant last Thursday.  He and Pence went to a Carrier plant in Indiana because they were planning to send over two thousand jobs to Mexico saving Carrier $65 million.

Well let’s see what they did…..

Indiana offered Carrier a $7 million package over 10 years for them investing $16 million in their plant and keeping 1000 jobs in the US. Of the reported 1000+ jobs saved, 730 were actually saved.  Three hundred R&D jobs were not going to be moved. They are still moving 600 jobs now and (when the plant in Huntington Indiana closes) another 700 are moving to Mexico.

On the campaign Trump mocked government payoffs by grants, tax incentives…He said you needed to use a stick not carrot. “What you do is you tell them, ‘You move to Mexico, you`re going to pay a 35 percent tax bringing these products that you make in Mexico back into the country.’”  He assured voters that it would work “easily”.

They are setting up a dangerous pattern to pay off companies to remain in the US.  Hell, if companies weren’t planning on it maybe they should.  “Pay us or we will leave.”

I wonder what additional incentives were offered? The US military makes up of about 10% of United Technologies’ (Carrier’s parent company and negotiator) $56 billion in annual sales.

I’m happy that 730 jobs were saved but at what cost?  Still losing 1300. Cost to Indiana taxpayers $7 million. The corporate tax rate supposedly will also be reduced. What under-the table deals might have be made that we don’t even know about?  Trump and Pence were really looking for a win.

BTW The $16 million Carrier is spending on the plant to “update it”…..will make it more automated.   Losing jobs in the future.

Letting go and understanding…

I was discussing with my sister how I need to let go of my anger about Trump’s election but unsure of how to do it.  I thought that I needed to understand where my anger comes from so I’ve been thinking…….

Why am I so mad?  I suspect am going to be OK through all of this but others are going to suffer and suffer bad.

Hate and racism runs through our community, state and country. The thin layer of veneer (common decency) which kept it suppressed has been ripped off.  Suddenly, with Trump’s permission, it is acceptable to spout hate toward our fellow Americans. He has incited a movement of “taking back our country” from people who are different from the right wing conservative. I am not sure of what rights they are taking back because as far as I know the 2nd amendment is still intact. I am pissed that he has made hating someone acceptable because they are different.

Now there were people who proclaim not to be racist and would not act in a racist manner that were able to overlook the hate that was spewed throughout his campaign for a greater good.  Since I periodically and personally asked Trump folks why they would vote for such a person, not one could or did (except for the answer ‘Hillary is a crook’).

When I asked about what crimes she had committed I would get a couple of answers…..She used her personal email server for government business.  This is serious.  I agree.  But “Hillary Haters” hated her long before this.  This is not “the crime” that made people vote against her.  She was investigated twice without being charged for anything other than poor judgement.  What does the average American really know about this?  Not much, just the chants of their candidate at rallies to “Lock her up”.  Folks believe, without real insider knowledge, that she must have been given special treatment to avoid prosecution. Then there is the Clinton Foundation and its sometimes lack of transparency.  Again, no criminal findings but maybe poor judgement.  Maybe the fact that the Clinton’s have been in government and the public eye for over 35 years have made them more vulnerable to scrutiny.  How many voters took the time to really look up the claims that she is a criminal?  Many have just heard it for so many years that they accept it as truth.  On top of all this, her husband was a cheat and exploited his power with sexual activities and she stayed with him.  So what other crimes has she committed?  When I asked my hairdresser why she was voting for Trump, she said “because Hillary is a criminal and she may have even killed someone”.  She was shook up when I asked her what crimes she committed and couldn’t answer the question.  I decided not to pursue it any more because she had the scissors and my hair was right there.  BTW she is a very normal nice everyday person that I am very sure has not done any research on either of the candidates.  Ahhh…she may have killed someone….yes, the Benghazi consulate four Americans were killed while she was Secretary of State and those deaths were blamed on her by many.  It was investigated and was determined that there was no way anyone could have gotten to those souls in time to save them.   Under Bush there were 13 attacks on American embassies, sixty-five dead, four Americans, no investigations.  Under Reagan there were four attacks, sixty-three dead, 17 U.S. citizens.  It was similarly criticized and investigated.  Its aftermath lacked the partisan zeal brought to bear on Benghazi.

Was Trump the “outsider” they hoped would clean up the government’s corruption?  I look at him as the Michael Brown of the “Black Lives Matter” movement.  Good and valid cause but the wrong poster boy.

I will continue this later as my day’s activities are calling me……

Aging parents…  Why is it so difficult to determine what level of care is sufficient and good for them?  It is sooo hard sometimes.  Your parent may not be difficult but your family members can be.  Or your family members are on the same page but your parent is not.  Keep comunication open and remember everyone has dad or mom’s best interest at heart. It is because we love that it is more challenging.

Our life’s fabric

I was talking to a friend about the difficulty in coping with a “bad” previous relationship. She is having a hard time letting go.  It got me thinking about a couple of things…..

First of all, we do not need to beat ourselves up for our choices in past relationships. We try to choose what we think we need or want.  Sometimes we simply choose what we didn’t choose the first time because that proved wrong.  Some may have been very toxic and dangerous. Guess what?  You are no longer in that relationship.  You are strong.

Are you happy now?  If yes, then congratulate yourself for getting there.  Why regret anything?  Every decision and relationship moved you where you are today (in a place of happiness).  Be grateful not critical.  If no, then I hope you soon find your happiness (it’s there waiting for you).

Every person we encounter and every decision that we make forms our life’s material. Each one is a fiber in our life’s fabric.  Some are strong, some frayed, some shiny, some dark, some pliable, some rough…  Embrace them all, for they are who you are.  They make us more loving, strong, vulnerable, compassionate, resilient, wise, forgiving, amusing, cautious…

Thank your bad relationships for putting you where you needed to be.  Don’t dwell on them or give them any more energy than that.  Just accept that they happened and move on weaving more fabric as you go.